How much can the brain recover from years of excessive alcohol consumption?

Permanent memory loss is more likely to happen if you drink heavily over a long period of time. Heavy drinkers are at risk for developing dementia, which is a condition that leads to a permanent decline in cognitive function. Heavy drinkers are more likely to experience issues with memory and thinking than light drinkers or non-drinkers.

What does alcohol do to your brain over time?

If snoring disrupts sleep, make an appointment to see your health care provider. Snoring could be a sign of a sleep disorder, such as sleep apnea. Research has established that it’s beneficial for the brain and may help improve memory in people of all ages, from children to older adults.

Alcohol Amount and Memory

Currently scientists are able to probe human brain activity in several ways. With PET scans and functional MRI, we can observe fluctuations in brain activity by measuring changes in blood flow and levels of nutrients. If you’re unable to control how much you drink, avoid drinking altogether.

Blackouts vs. Passing Out

Working memory is what we use to “work with the information we have”, says Restak, and it’s the one we should all prioritise. Left to its own devices, he points out, memory naturally starts to decline from your 30s onwards, which is why he advocates practising it daily. It seems as though this whole phenomenon of blackouts is a really big public health issue. Because people may do things in after the high the dea that state, such as committing sexual assault, that they don’t feel personally responsible for later. They need to be aware that it’s certainly possible there could have been something that happened that [Kavanaugh] might have no memory of. So if he says something didn’t happen and it was supposed to have happened during a heavy drinking episode, then it’s possible he has no memory of it.

The 4 Stages of Alcohol Recovery: A Path to Healing

It is understandable that drinking memories will pop into your mind – this is probably a behaviour you engaged in for many years. If you resist these thoughts though, it just causes them to intensify. It is similar to somebody telling you ‘not to think about kangaroos’ – the more you try to do this, the more you will end up thinking about kangaroos.

  1. She also suggests joining a peer-support community like where you can gain support and advice from other people who are also working to reduce their drinking.
  2. Just as physical activity keeps your body in shape, activities that engage your mind help keep your brain in shape.
  3. “A qualified therapist or counselor who focuses on addiction and substance abuse is one option,” she noted.

When in an alcoholic blackout, a person can walk, talk, and interact with other people. But they don’t form memories of what they are doing or experiencing. Though chronic alcohol abuse kills brain cells and shrinksbrain volume your amazing body can heal itself and you can think as clearly asyou once did – and all your brain needs is time to repair and an end to theeveryday destruction of alcoholism. You can avoid short-term memory loss by removing alcohol from the equation. Additionally, many older people also experience a slow degeneration of the cells in the hippocampus.

Memory is divided is into retrospective (long-term) and prospective or working (short-term) memory. Retrospective memory is remembering all events and episodes that have happened in our lifetime. Heavy alcohol use contributes to a shrinkage of the brain similar to Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by memory loss. However, studies do not support alcohol as a cause of Alzheimer’s disease. People who are experiencing being blackout drunk often feel similar symptoms to being drunk.

They looked at those who entered treatment and either stopped drinking; resumed drinking, but at low-risk levels; or resumed drinking at higher-risk levels. There may be memories that are completely blacked out, that don’t come back. This type of blackout is called “en bloc”, literally “in a block” where time stopped, and memories global news: busting myths on alcohol and covid-19 just aren’t there. If you have been blackout drunk and want to know how to remember what happened here are a couple of things that may help. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that chronic alcoholism can damage the cerebellum, which plays an important role in regulating motor control, attention and language.

Research has shown that a sugar-laden diet can lead to poor memory and reduced brain volume, particularly in the area of the brain that stores short-term memory (1, 2). When alcohol and other drugs (AOD) enter the body, the bloodstream and the brain, they interfere with its normal processes, altering behaviours, emotions and moods. Recovery from AUD is marked by stages of drug addiction blog abstinence, withdrawal, repair, and growth. While the process may take several years, the outcome is a happier, healthier life where you have the freedom to fulfill your full potential. Your body has acclimated to quitting drinking over the past couple of years. Recovery from alcohol addiction generally follows the stages of abstinence, withdrawal, repair, and growth.

Alcohol-related blackouts are gaps in a person’s memory for events that occurred while they were intoxicated. These gaps happen when a person drinks enough alcohol to temporarily block the transfer of memories from short-term to long-term storage—known as memory consolidation—in a brain area called the hippocampus. Drinking to the point of a blackout has gained pop culture notoriety in recent years. Alcohol-induced blackouts can lead to impaired memory of events that transpired while intoxicated, and a drastically increased risk of injuries and other harms. They can occur in anyone who drinks alcohol, no matter their age or level of experience with drinking.

If there was a complete blackout, then at some point you will have woken up, so make a note of the time that happened. Trying to remember blackout memories and not being able to can be confusing and frightening. Our recovery programs are based on decades of research to deliver treatment that really works.

Some people experience what doctors call a blackout when they drink too much alcohol and don’t remember key details. If you’re worried about memory loss, make an appointment with your health care provider. If memory loss affects your ability to do your daily activities, if you notice your memory getting worse, or if a family member or friend is concerned about your memory loss, it’s particularly important to get help. Choose low-fat protein sources, such as fish, beans and skinless poultry.

Coming to terms with the fact that you might need treatment for an alcohol addiction is never going to be easy. The one thing you definitely do not want to do with these drinking memories is to use them as an excuse to beat yourself up. You do not really have much power of these thoughts because they can be triggered by anything in your environment – it only takes hearing an old song on the radio to bring up these memories, for example. Making yourself feel bad over these thoughts is not only being unfair to yourself, but it could also be paving the way to a relapse – i.e. ‘I feel bad anyway, so I might as well just drink’.

Although their performance on cognitive tests may continue to improve, deficits can be observed on visuoperceptual and problem-solving tasks for much longer periods of time, even as long as many months or years. In certain studies examining deficits in short-term memory, visuospatial functioning, and attention among older alcoholics, problems have been identified even after 5 years (Brandt et al. 1983). Well, when blood alcohol content levels rise to a certain degree, alcohol starts to affect the hippocampus. Rather, they are a result of the brain not being able to store memories while blood alcohol levels are high.

Walking in Their Shoes: A Deep Dive into the Alcoholics Mind FHE Health

Physically, heavy drinking can cause liver damage, including a range of liver inflammations and pancreatitis, a painful inflammation of the pancreas. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) also notes that alcohol consumption is linked to an increased risk of various cancers. Alcohol interferes with brain function, affecting mood and behavior, and long-term consumption can lead to permanent changes in the brain. Ultimately, the research suggests that the relationship between alcoholic thinking and alcohol consumption is complex and potentially cyclical, with various factors influencing the directionality of their relationship. This underscores the need for a nuanced approach in prevention and treatment, taking into consideration the individual’s attitudes, social norms, and the possibility of coexisting conditions.

  1. The active alcoholic wallows in self-pity and concludes that they are a victim of life.
  2. Addiction not only involves the individual suffering, but their partner, their family, and their friends as well.
  3. The misuse of alcohol can also result in cognitive impairments, poor judgment, and risky behaviors.
  4. These individuals, sometimes called “almost alcoholics,” may not see the connection at first but would often benefit from help and support.
  5. At the same time, the uncomplicated alcoholics served as a diagnostic comparison to the KS.

Transitions in drinking: Alcohol Initiation and Quit Attempts

AA is not for everyone and there are plenty of different treatment options, but it can be successful and meaningful for those who choose it. The idea that altered forms of consciousness such as mania or alcohol can enhance creativity is a popular belief. Researchers found that participants who had a few drinks were better and faster at creative alcohol withdrawal problem solving than their sober counterparts. The reason may be that alcohol tamps down working memory and therefore sparks people to think outside the box. Alcohol is a powerful substance, with the capacity for positive experiences, such as bursts of creativity and fun, as well as harmful repercussions, such as addiction and health problems.

Recovery of Brain Macrostructure

The Community Preventive Services Task Force and other health agencies recommend several evidence-based strategies to mitigate alcohol-related risks and promote healthy behaviors. One effective method is the implementation of community-level interventions that create environments discouraging excessive drinking. Such environments can be fostered through policy changes that control alcohol availability, enhance enforcement of legal drinking age, and restrict alcohol advertising. Understanding the role of genetics and environment in alcoholism is essential for the development of targeted prevention and treatment strategies.

Chronic Severe Subtype

Over time, this is something people begin to crave and, therefore, depending on many factors, such as genes, environmental factors, psychological factors or stress levels, a person can be more susceptible to becoming an alcoholic. In calculating the agreement between predictions of future recognition performance and actual recognition performance, the alcoholics overestimated their recognition ability despite being accurate in their estimation of how they performed (Le Berre et al., 2016, 2010). Within the alcoholics, greater FOK accuracy correlated with greater activation in the right insula, a correlation bath salts addiction: signs risks and treatment not observed in the controls (Le Berre et al., 2017). At rest, alcoholics showed the same pattern of activation synchrony as controls but had less robust synchrony between most nodes of the DMN than controls (Chanraud, Pitel, Pfefferbaum, & Sullivan, 2011). One exception was for the middle frontal cortex, which had higher activation in the alcoholics than controls. In a verbal working memory task, participants were given either six letters or one letter to remember over a 5-s interval and saw a probe letter, to which they responded with a button box key yes if it matched or no if it did not.

Studies indicate that individuals who exhibit higher levels of delay discounting are more susceptible to developing substance use disorders, including alcoholism. Prospective cohort studies further illuminate this complexity, showing that early psychological disturbances can be precursors to both mood disorders and AUD. The relationship between mental health issues and alcohol use is intricate, with alcohol sometimes used as a coping mechanism for distress, leading to a bidirectional influence where each exacerbates the other. Injunctive norms and attitudes toward drinking also play a role, influencing and being influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among different populations, including college students. Furthermore, alcohol’s impact on the brain is not uniform across all individuals or life stages.

However, loved ones often want to help, such as by showing solidarity or hosting a gathering that feels safe for their loved one. Whenever possible, it’s best to have an open, respectful, and direct conversation with the individual in recovery, and ask how they feel about alcohol being present. Doing this in advance will allow time for both people to process the discussion and set clear faith-based addiction recovery top religious recovery groups expectations. There are many organized programs that provide the support of peers, usually through frequent meetings. Alcoholics Anonymous is one example; it offers a structured 12-step path toward recovery with a community of support from those who have dealt with similar challenges. As anyone who has had even a glass of wine can attest, alcohol can have a noticeable influence on mood.

Too much alcohol affects your speech, muscle coordination and vital centers of your brain. This is of particular concern when you’re taking certain medications that also depress the brain’s function. Many people with alcohol use disorder hesitate to get treatment because they don’t recognize that they have a problem.

The frontal lobe is the area where higher mental functions occur while the cerebellum is responsible for balance, gait, and learning. She has a 14-year-old son who spends most of his time at friends’ houses and a husband who works long hours to support his family. She has been arrested for Operating a Vehicle Impaired (OVI) twice in the past two years. As alcoholics tend to drink progressively more they will generally conceal the frequency and amount they drink.

This doesn’t make you a bad person, but it does make it more urgent that you look for help to change your habits and get your relationships back on track. Despite still having the occasional struggles with mental health, Bryan strives to be a little bit better a person each day. With the support and love from a loyal family, and kind-hearted and generous friends, Bryan tries to help people vanquish their own personal demons as he did and bring more love and beauty into a pessimistic world. Someone who struggles with alcoholism will often deny that they have an issue at all and will make excuses for why they drink so much or why they keep relapsing after trying to quit. Denial can make it difficult for someone to accept help and get on the road to recovery, as they are unable or unwilling to admit there is an issue in need of addressing.

People can focus on education and support, such as through Alcoholics Anonymous, or take on a sobriety challenge. People can learn mindfulness; rather than trying to soothe uncomfortable feelings with alcohol, mindfulness encourages techniques such as breathing, visualization, and meditation. In some cases, the first step in treating alcohol use disorder is detoxification—experiencing withdrawal in a safe setting with medical professionals.

That strong need or urge can be triggered by people, places, things, or times of day that remind you of drinking. When you have a drinking problem, your brain reacts to these triggers differently than a social drinker’s does. The best way to overcome white knuckling is by seeking professional help and attending a recovery program such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). AA meetings provide a safe space for individuals struggling with addiction and allow them access to resources such as sponsorships and connections with others who understand what they’re going through.

How to get your marriage back on track after soberity

We both did a lot of work to disentangle, develop clear communication, and become mindful of ourselves and each other. Today, with 12 years of recovery, we have created a strong bond that respects our individuality, challenges us to grow, and supports our human fragility. We learned so many unexpected lessons in sobriety, and our marriage is surviving. After years of going backwards once I stopped drinking, we are making progress and recovering our marriage. The lessons we learned are not gender specific, and the ebook is applicable for husbands of alcoholic wives in recovery, and same sex marriages as well.

Understanding Alcohol Use Disorder: The Medical Perspective

Once you’ve identified the negative emotions that are holding you back, you can start to work on healing. Stress can come in a lot of different forms when you’re trying to get sober – marriage doesn’t have to be one of them. If your partner has stuck by you through your addiction, then they’re most likely willing to support your recovery process as well. Taking a few extra steps can make the experience smoother for both you and your spouse as you work towards your path to recovery. Addiction can make people withdrawn or even cause them to lie repeatedly.

  • Al-Anon is a great resource, but just like AA is not a good fit for everyone, couples need options in the ways they find help recovering their marriages from alcoholism.
  • Sure, the hangovers sucked and made working life increasingly difficult, but it seemed like a small price to pay for grabbing life by the horns.
  • It can be particularly difficult to open up and communicate with your spouse when you’re in the midst of an addiction.
  • Trust is linked with intimacy, so understand that your spouse may need time to rebuild the sexual part of your marriage as well.
  • When you and your spouse receive couples therapy for drug addiction together, you can address your individual issues and work together on the underlying problems.

Loss of trust

  • Trust becomes a major issue, and it can be difficult to feel like you have a partner you can rely on.
  • It was exhausting and a perfect recipe for further enmeshment.
  • Alternatively, or even at the same time, they may berate and rage at their addicted spouse.
  • Try to address those needs and wants and take them seriously.
  • I discovered that those traits were his innate qualities and not alcohol-induced.
  • Open communication involves being as honest and clear as possible.
  • There may be physical, emotional, and mental signs of withdrawal.

While you may harbor resentment or anger toward your spouse, it’s often counterproductive or damaging to constantly rehash these feelings. Instead, you can vent and navigate your emotions in a personal journal. Journaling can help you process marriage after sobriety your emotions without hurting your spouse or causing an unnecessary argument. After addiction, broken trust is likely to be the biggest obstacle to overcome in your marriage. For the recovering addict, this means absolute honesty is essential.

marriage after sobriety

The Importance of Mutual Respect and Trust When Drugs Are Involved

Kyle Richards Reveals Sobriety Affected Marriage With Mauricio Umansky – Reality Tea

Kyle Richards Reveals Sobriety Affected Marriage With Mauricio Umansky.

Posted: Thu, 16 Nov 2023 08:00:00 GMT [source]

The emotional bonds, history, and hope for change often make the decision to leave an incredibly difficult one. Letting go of someone you love with an addiction can be one of the hardest things to do. It’s important to remember that you can’t force someone to change or get help – they have to want it for themselves. Seek support from professionals or support groups, and remember to take care of your own mental and emotional health. While alcoholism might have been an unwelcome guest in your marriage, it doesn’t have to overstay its welcome.

marriage after sobriety

If you and your spouse are willing to work hard, it’s possible to overcome the challenges that come with healing your relationship. It just takes a little bit of effort on both your parts. We don’t want to acknowledge that we’re experiencing withdrawal, let alone ask for help. With each passing day, though, you and your spouse are growing further and further apart. You may feel like you’re at each other’s throats more than usual.

Do the hard work to overcome your codependency

marriage after sobriety

We had a clear vision of our life together that had been interrupted by his substance use disorder. I was eager, at times perhaps too much, to get us back on track. Without the cornerstone of Bill’s recovery, none of this would be possible again. That’s why we wrote a new ebook that we are announcing today. It’s about our struggles to survive alcoholism recovery and hold our marriage together. A Spouse’s Guide to Alcoholism Recovery, Sheri and I worked together to write our new ebook from her perspective.

But we survived.

Get Sober Together

Cognitive Dissonance: Definition and Examples

To reduce this dissonance, we are motivated to try to think that the task turned out well. The theory of cognitive dissonance has been widely researched in a number of situations to develop the basic idea in more detail, and various factors have been identified which may be important in attitude change. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance. The theory behind this approach is that in order to resolve the dissonance, a person’s implicit beliefs about their body and thinness will change, reducing their desire to limit their food intake. Avoiding, delegitimizing, and limiting the impact of cognitive dissonance may result in a person not acknowledging their behavior and thus not taking steps to resolve the dissonance.

Averse consequences vs. inconsistency

When we develop integrity, we are simply lining up our actions with our beliefs and consistently acting on them. Finally, many of the studies supporting the theory of cognitive dissonance have low ecological validity. For example, turning pegs (as in Festinger’s experiment) is an artificial task that doesn’t happen in everyday life. If both options are equally harmless, changing your beliefs to support the option you chose won’t have any long-term negative impacts.

Social pressures

  • Regardless, these healthy choices promote good overall health and may play a role in good cognitive health.
  • Maybe they do not make much sense to you or other people, but everyone is different.
  • These feelings may even lead you to hide your actions or decisions from others or to feel like you are a hypocrite.
  • But you can feel caught off guard when those values and beliefs are shaken by social pressures, the presence of new information or having to make a rushed last-minute decision.

These science-based exercises will provide you with detailed insight into Positive CBT and give you the tools to apply it in your therapy or coaching. Cognitive dissonance is powerful because we are highly driven to eliminate it.

  • Without recognizing the powerful shifts in thinking while craving, the smoker may conclude that the relapse reflects a lack of willpower or self-confidence.
  • To alleviate this discomfort, people resort to rationalization and denial.
  • While chemistry ignites passion, compatibility nurtures the core of a lasting bond.

A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance – Leon Festinger

Have you ever felt a sense of tension in your mind, but you weren’t sure why or what was causing it? This psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance is hard to detect, but for those with addiction, it is important to recognize. This can help be able to detect any underlying mental illness that can be a major contributor to someone’s addictive behavior. Co-occurring disorders (addiction and substance disorder coinciding) can be managed with dual diagnosis treatment. It completely changes a person’s moral compass, which is why the choice they make to engage in these addictive behaviors is stronger than just willpower. When a person always has a rational explanation for their irrational behavior, this is known in psychology as the cognitive dissonance theory.

cognitive dissonance treatment

Lecanemab works by preventing amyloid plaques in the brain from clumping. This study was the largest so far to look at whether clearing clumps of amyloid plaques from the brain can slow the disease. The Alzheimer’s medicine called cholinesterase inhibitors is sometimes given to people with MCI whose main symptom is memory loss. However, cholinesterase inhibitors aren’t recommended for routine treatment of MCI. They haven’t been found to affect progression to dementia, and they can cause side effects. No one test can confirm that someone has mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

cognitive dissonance treatment

A Psychologist Explains Love’s ‘Chemistry-Or-Compatibility’ Problem

Challenge your beliefs

  • Communities can provide the structure and means for collective intelligence to emerge, becoming a vital locus for new ideas, even though they sometimes have a difficult time describing the goals and dreams that unite them.
  • Here are three reasons why we’re often drawn to initial chemistry, leading us to conveniently overlook long-term compatibility.
  • Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior.
  • Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable feeling that can occur when you have conflicting beliefs, values, or behaviors.

What to Eat During Alcohol Recovery

Importantly, it also reduces alcohol craving, likely through its effects on dopamine that is released in response to cues, such as the sight, smell and taste of alcohol. Naltrexone is effective for reducing heavy alcohol recovery diet drinking but less effective for complete abstinence from alcohol. A more recently FDA-approved — and more effective — medication for alcohol use disorder is the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone.

More on Substance Abuse and Addiction

Fatty liver diet: Foods to eat and avoid – Medical News Today

Fatty liver diet: Foods to eat and avoid.

Posted: Thu, 13 Feb 2020 22:12:00 GMT [source]

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is the supplemental form of cysteine especially useful for boosting antioxidants in your body and improving brain function. Look for supplements containing NAC if you are having trouble consuming enough whole foods containing cysteine. Eating salads filled with a variety of cruciferous and non cruciferous vegetables and topped with sunflower seeds, salmon, or more can improve your hydration and boost your nutrient intake. Eating at least one salad a day with a variety of ingredients can help you stay away from alcohol while replenishing your nutrient levels.

alcohol recovery diet

Eat Plenty of Vegetables

The conversation about breast cancer risk should begin when a woman is in her late 20s or early 30s, if not before, Devine said. “I’ve seen plenty of women go from a completely normal mammogram without any need for follow-up testing and then the next year, they have breast cancer,” Devine said. Preventive Services Task Force might be confusing if you are person with breasts between ages 40 and 49. While the task force recommended screenings start at 40 instead of 50 with the option to start at 40, it recommended an every-other-year mammogram instead of an annual one.

alcohol recovery diet

Foods Low in Sodium

alcohol recovery diet

These options have no filter content which can lead you to feel sluggish after meals. Whole grains are also rich in fiber, but also provide a slow release of sugar into a person’s system to help prevent mood swings. They also help you feel fuller for longer and provide ongoing energy. You should strive to have at least one serving of whole grains a day. We offer physician-led treatment for drug and alcohol addiction in New Jersey. Call us today to speak with a Recovery Advocate for free about your treatment options.

  • Zinc can help strengthen the immune system and help improve your mood.
  • Eating light meals or focusing on eating snacks throughout the day instead of big meals may help support physical recovery while dealing with the loss of appetite or nausea.

Whole Grains For Alcohol Detox

  • While more research is needed to see if it can also aid those with cancer, some studies have noted its potential in this area.
  • In fact, in 2016 alone, harmful alcohol consumption resulted in nearly three million deaths and 132.6 million disability-adjusted life years1,2,3,4.
  • Naltrexone also appears to be more effective among people whose drinking is motivated by a desire for the positive, rewarding effects of alcohol, consistent with its ability to reduce these effects.
  • It can trigger irritable bowel syndrome, acid reflux, and other gastrointestinal illnesses, too.

The escalation of substance abuse comes with increasingly severe cravings and the inability to control consumption despite building negative consequences. In the same manner, those who have bulimia and binge eating disorders experience extreme cravings for food and feel a loss of control when over-consuming. Both food and addictive substances present ways to escape from or numb unwanted feelings. Up to 50% of people with an eating disorder abuse drugs or alcohol, which is five times the rate of the general population. Additionally, up to 35% of people who have abused drugs or been addicted also struggle with an eating disorder.

Alcohol Detox Diet: What Are the Best Foods?

It is worth noting, however, that FeSA@AH also decreased the BAce concentration (Supplementary Fig. 27b), indicating its dominant competitive role in ethanol elimination to endogenous ADH. Significant lower blood ALT and AST levels further confirmed the inflammation alleviation effect of FeSA@AH on the liver (Fig. 5d). Additionally, administration of FeSA@AH also significantly suppressed triglyceride and total cholesterol accumulation in ethanol-fed mice (Supplementary Fig. 28e–j).

If someone really doesn’t want a mammogram, Devine might order an ultrasound, which can find a mass, but not the calcifications of early breast cancer. Anyone who has a family history of breast cancer should begin screening mammograms 10 years before that family member was diagnosed. So, if someone has an aunt, mother, sister or grandmother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 45, they need to be screened at age 35.

Complex Carbohydrates For Alcohol Detox

  • Nutritional yeast can replenish B vitamins and keep your body going without much fuss.
  • Alcohol tolerance time was the duration between alcohol administration and the absence of righting reflex, while the duration of the absence of righting reflex was recorded as the sobering-up time.
  • Milk thistle is essential for those with cirrhosis and alcohol-induced fatty liver.
  • The morphology of , which retains a nanometre-scale diameter consistent with pure BLG fibrils (Supplementary Fig. 2b), suggests minimal structural impact from the integration of iron (Fig. 1b and Supplementary Fig. 2b).
  • We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals.

As research into new medications continues, patients should seek providers who use evidence-based treatments to have the greatest likelihood of success in gaining control over their drinking. For example, my work and others’ has found that people who both drink heavily and smoke cigarettes are more likely to benefit from naltrexone. Naltrexone also appears to be more effective among people whose drinking is motivated by a desire for the positive, rewarding effects of alcohol, consistent with its ability to reduce these effects. Naltrexone can be taken daily by mouth or injected once per month, making it a better option for patients who might struggle to take a daily oral medication. Interestingly, it also reduces heavy drinking when taken sporadically prior to anticipated drinking occasions. A similar opioid antagonist, nalmefene, is approved in the European Union for alcohol use disorder.